All Of The Following Statements About The Paris Climate Agreement Are True Except
Another key difference between the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol are their areas of application. While the Kyoto Protocol distinguished between Annex 1 and Annex 1 countries, this ramification is unclear in the Paris Agreement, with all parties being obliged to submit emission reduction plans.  While the Paris Agreement still insists on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities” – the recognition that different nations have different capacities and obligations in the fight against climate change – it does not provide for a specific separation between developed and developing countries.  It therefore seems that negotiators will have to continue to address this issue in future rounds of negotiations, even if the debate on differentiation could take on a new dynamic.  On June 1, 6, 2017, President Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. In response, other Governments strongly reaffirmed their commitment to the agreement. U.S. cities, states and other non-state actors have also reaffirmed their support for the agreement and pledged to further intensify their climate efforts. The United States officially began its withdrawal from the agreement on November 4, 2019; the withdrawal became effective on 4 November 2020. President-elect Biden has promised to return to the Paris Agreement after taking office. Global negotiations on climate change have been going on for more than 20 years.
The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century physicists theorized in the century about the role of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase along with the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere. But it was theoretical. Negotiators for the agreement said the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and noted “with concern that estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030, resulting from projected national contributions, did not fall under the least expensive 2°C scenarios, but would end at a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in 2030.” and recognizing that “much greater efforts will be needed to reduce emissions in order to keep the global average temperature rise to less than 2°C by reducing emissions to 40 gigatons or 1.5°C”.  [Clarification required] The Paris Agreement is the first truly global commitment to address the climate emergency. In 2015, 195 countries and the European Union signed a single, comprehensive agreement to keep global warming well below 2°C (3.6°F) – and to make every effort to exceed 1.5°C (2.7°F). The pioneering agreement was successful where previous attempts failed because it allowed each country to set its own emission reduction targets and pursue its own strategies to achieve them. In addition, nations, inspired by policies taken by local and regional governments, businesses and others, have recognized that the fight against climate change has considerable socio-economic benefits. . . .